The beginning of civilization as we know it really started with a series of material innovations; the Bronze Age and the Iron Age set us on the path to where we are now, after all. So it makes sense that the history of architecture is also deeply engrained in technological developments of the time. Skyscrapers would have never reached such heights without developments in steel, for example, and facades would have never slimmed down without thin-shell concrete.
In a time that is so buzzing with technological development, we cannot help but salivate a little at the material prospects for architecture that are just on the horizon. With 2014 just beginning, we want to take a moment to see what drastic innovations may be leaking into the world of architecture in the near future.
A large crack down the chimney of Corbusier's La Tourette is a typical challenge that modernist concrete icons pose for preservationists. From Walking through Le Corbusier by José Baltanás (London: Thames and Hudson, 2005), via Metropolis.
The great downfall of concrete—the world's most widely used building material—is unavoidable cracking, caused by exposure to water and chemicals. But a new development from a team in the Netherlands could extend the life of this popular material, by infusing it with bacterial spores that patch up cracks when water seeps through. Plans are in place to make this self-healing concrete commercial in the next year or two.
Nanotechnology is pushing materials science beyond the limits of what once seemed impossible. When combined with ultra-high-strength concrete, nanomaterials such as Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) create a material so strong in both tension and compression that steel rebar is no longer needed in construction, therefore expediting the building process. The possibilities don’t stop there. Other developments include ultra light-weight (super-strong) materials, as well as another form of self-healing concrete.
With more efficient solar panels, you may not need quite as many as are on the Kaohsiung National Stadium to power the building (although the effect is gorgeous!). Image via Jogos.
Solar panel innovations
Nanotechnology could also greatly improve the efficiency of solar panels, making it possible to embed a single panel with a huge array of individual solar cells. This would greatly reduce the cost of the technology, finally making solar energy a viable alternative to fossil fuel. Other explorations in making solar energy cheaper include dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) and DuPont's silicon ink component.
In addition to insulating, Aerogel also has the unique property of being translucent, potentially redefining the "glass house." Photo of Hemsworth Managed Offices (Atkins Architects) via Kalwall by David Jewel.
Whether it's climate change or simply daunting energy bills, nearly everyone is demanding more efficient, greener new buildings. Insulation is therefore a hot topic, especially when it comes to aerogel—not only one of the lightest materials available, but also one of the highest insulators. (It also held 13 other Guinness World Records in 2011.) Originally developed by NASA, a commercial spinoff has recently emerged in the form of Thermablock, specifically designed for residential and commercial uses.
Hopefully they don't actually sweat that much. Image via Materials View.
Though the idea of a "sweaty" building sounds rather ... unpleasant ... this new material from researchers at ETH-Zurich that aims to make your building perspire is anything but. The rooftop material absorbs water when it rains and only releases it when the heat is raised to a certain temperature. The resulting evaporation will in turn keep the house cool—much like the process of human sweat.
MASS Design's hospital in Rwanda uses architecture to reduce the risk of disease spreading through the facility. New SLIP materials could also help with the cause in the future.
Stopping the spread of disease in a confined space such as a hospital is no easy task, involving continuous disinfecting and even the occasional architectural reorganization. But now a team from Harvard is investigating an alternative that would produce a “slippery liquid-infused porous surface” (SLIP), that would let bacteria slip right off. In addition, the material could ward off dust, ice, and graffiti, making it a tantalizing prospect to industries outside of just health care.
Similar to our obsession with diamonds as the “hardest material on earth,” our fascination with the naturally occurring material of silk never seems to abate. Stronger than steel, weight-for-weight, the super-fine material has the added bonus of being super-flexible. Scientists have long tried to synthetically engineer the material (to give the humble silkworm a bit of a break), with little progress. But a team from from the MIT Media Lab has found a way to control silkworms to do their bidding to create a silk pavilion—basically, printing with worms.